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Chapter-3: Quantum Entanglement

UNIVERSE SCIENCE & GOD

Chapter-3: Quantum Entanglement, The God Effect!

Mysteries of Quantum Physics lead to God:

“To God belongs the Mystery of the heavens and the earth. And the Decision of the Hour (of Judgment) is as the twinkling of an eye, or even quicker: for God hath power over all things.” (Qur’an; 16:77).
If two electrons are created together, they are forever entangled, regardless of the distance between the two electrons; a change in quantum spin in one electron will immediately cause the other electron to change spin as well.

The part where you jiggle an electron on one side of the universe and an invisible force traverses millions of light years and smacks another electron into wiggling instantaneously, which is about a million years faster than is technically possible without time travel. In theory, you could separate two electrons by as much space as you wanted (say, the breadth of the universe), and they are still linked in such a way that actions taken on one would affect the other instantaneously. Meaning information is being transmitted at speeds faster than light. Meaning, if you want to really go nuts, time travel. And though the party pooping scientists have been busy coming up with limitations on the kind of information that could be transmitted, no one has yet been able to disprove the theory that there is an invisible force in the universe capable of affecting matter millions of light-years away instantly. So at Big Bang there was a point in the past in which every atom in the universe was condensed into a singularity. Which means everything is quantumly entangled. Some scientists have even gone so far as to claim that quantum entanglement shows that there is no such thing as space, and that everything in the universe is still touching.

Here is an other explanation:  When a photon (photon is a force carrier particle, usually polarized laser light) passes through matter, it will be absorbed by an electron. Eventually, and spontaneously, the electron will return to its ground state by emitting the photon. Certain crystal structures increase the likelihood that the photon will split into two photons, both of them with longer wavelengths than the original. Keep in mind that a longer wavelength means a lower frequency, and thus less energy. The total energy of the two photons must equal the energy of the photon originally fired from the laser (conservation of energy). When the original photon splits into two photons, the resulting photon pair is considered entangled.
The process of using certain crystals to split incoming photons into pairs of photons is called parametric down-conversion.  Normally the photons exit the crystal such that one is aligned in a horizontally polarized light cone, the other aligned vertically. By adjusting the experiment, the horizontal and vertical light cones can be made to overlap. Even though the polarization of the individual photons is unknown, the nature of quantum mechanics predicts they differ.  To illustrate, if an entangled photon meets a vertical polarizing filter, the photon may or may not pass through. If it does, then its entangled partner will not because the instant that the first photon's polarization is known, the second photon's polarization will be the exact opposite. It is this instant communication between the entangled photons to indicate each other's polarization that lies at the heart of quantum entanglement. This is the "spooky action at a distance" that Einstein believed was theoretically implausible.
Quantum events obey the laws of quantum theory, which governs the behaviour of minute objects like atoms and subatomic particles, including photons of light. By contrast with the laws of ''classical'' physics (which apply to the relatively large objects of the everyday world), quantum physics often exhibits behaviour that seems impossible. The connections that persist between distant but entangled particles are ''one of the deep mysteries of quantum mechanics. 'These connections are a fact of nature proven by experiments, but to try to explain them philosophically is very difficult. Albert Einstein sneered at the very possibility of such a thing, calling it ''spooky action at a distance.'' Scientists still (somewhat shamefacedly) speak of the ''magic'' of ''quantum weirdness.'' And yet all experiments in recent years have shown that Einstein was wrong and that action at a distance is real.
In the early 1930s, Einstein had problems with the whole of quantum physics, which is ironic given that it was partially based on his Nobel Prize winning paper on the photoelectric effect. What he didn’t like was the way quantum particles don’t have fixed values for their properties until they are observed. Why? Einstein couldn’t relate to a universe where probability ruled! That’s why he famously said that "Der Herrgott würfelt nicht!" or "The Lord doesn’t play dice!" Einstein believed that underneath these mathematical probabilities were fixed hidden realities that we just couldn’t see. That was why he, Podolsky and Rosen dreamed up the idea of what we now call "Quantum Entanglement" in 1935. It was to show that either quantum theory was incomplete, because it said there was no hidden information, or it was possible to instantly influence something at a distance. As that seemed incredible, he thought it showed that quantum theory was incorrect the way it had been presented with probabilistic mathematics. Quantum entanglement is at the heart of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Paradox developed in 1935.
It did take a long time to prove that Quantum Entanglement truly existed. It wasn’t until the 1980s that it was clearly demonstrated. But it has been shown without doubt that this is the case.  In 1982, at the university of Paris, a research team led by physicist Alain Aspect performed what may turn out to be one of the most important experiments of the 20th century. Aspect and his team discovered that:  under certain circumstances subatomic particles such as electrons are able to instantaneously communicate with each other regardless of the distance separating them.  The problem with this discovery is that it violates Einstein’s long-held tenet that no communication can travel faster than the speed of light.
In 1935 a famous paper by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen challenged the quantum theory prediction that entangled particles could remain instantly in touch with each other. One of their objections was based on the speed limit imposed by Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity: nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Einstein and his colleagues preferred a more intuitive explanation of the simultaneous correlation between entangled particles, based on the idea that the match between them is ordained by their identical antecedents. The behaviour of each particle, they argued, is the product of hidden ''local'' factors, not by spooky long-distance effects. But again and again in recent years, increasingly sensitive experiments have decisively proved that Einstein's explanation was wrong and quantum theory is correct.
Since the 1970's, physicists have been testing a prediction of quantum theory that ''entangled'' particles continue to communicate with each other instantaneously even when very far apart.  Entangled particles are identical entities that share common origins and properties, and remain in instantaneous touch with each other, no matter how wide the gap between them. Past experiments on entangled particles were carried out over distances of 100 yards or less. By showing that the link between two entangled particles survives even when they are seven miles apart, Dr. Gisin set a dramatic distance record.
The twin-photon experiment by Dr. Nicolas Gisin of the University of Geneva and his colleagues in June 1997 was the most spectacular demonstration yet of the mysterious long-range connections that exist between quanta events, connections created from nothing at all, which in theory can reach instantaneously from one end of the universe to the other.
In essence, Dr. Gisin sent pairs of photons in opposite directions to villages north and south of Geneva along optical fibers of the kind used to transmit telephone calls. Reaching the ends of these fibers, the two photons were forced to make random choices between alternative, equally possible pathways. Since there was no way for the photons to communicate with each other, ''classical'' physics would predict that their independent choices would bear no relationship to each other. But when the paths of the two photons were properly adjusted and the results compared, the independent decisions by the paired photons always matched, even though there was no physical way for them to communicate with each other. In principle, it should make no difference whether the correlation between twin particles occurs when they are separated by a few meters or by the entire universe. This research is interesting not only from a scientific and philosophical point of view, but because of a very practical consequence: possible completely secure code could be created.

The Measurement or Observation:

Effects on Behavior of Entangled Particles:
One of the weird aspects of quantum mechanics is that something can simultaneously exist and not exist; if a particle is capable of moving along several different paths, or existing in several different states, the ‘Uncertainty Principle of Quantum Mechanics’ allows it to travel along all paths and exist in all possible states simultaneously. However, if the particle happens to be measured by some means, [observation or instrumental measurement] its path or state is no longer uncertain. The simple act of measurement instantly forces it into just one path or state.  Physicists call this a ''collapse of the wave function.''
The amazing thing is that if just one particle in an entangled pair is measured, the wave function of both particles collapses into a definite state that is the same for both partners, even separated by great distances. The ‘double slit’ and ‘single slit’ experiments of electrons behaving as wave and particle respectively but once electron is observed it knows being observed and behaves as single shot electron not as wave. This is strange phenomena. The particle knows when it is being watched and when it was not. This shows the simple means of intelligence by reacting to visual stimuli. In the STI [Self thinking Interface] Device created by Physicst Roger R.Vogelsan in the early 70’ proved that there is ultimate knowledge in the FORCE which connects to all freed electrons. This FORCE knows everything its Omniscient.
Among several proposed explanations of all this is the ''many worlds'' hypothesis: the notion that for every possible pathway or state open to a particle, there is a separate universe. For each of 10 possible pathways a quantum particle might follow, for example, there would exist a separate universe.
Since the 1970's, Dr. John F. Clauser of the University of California at Berkeley, Dr. Alain Aspect at the Institute des Optics in Orsay, France, and others have been experimenting with pairs of entangled particles. One way to create a pair of entangled twins is to start with a single photon of ultraviolet radiation and pass it through a peculiar artificial mineral called a ''down-conversion crystal.'' In the Swiss experiment, the crystal consisted of potassium niobate. The crystal splits the photon in two, producing two new photons that continue on in somewhat different directions, and whose combined energy equals the energy of their parent photon. The special quality of such pairs, as shown both by theory and experiment, is that they are entangled quantum mechanically. This means that if the polarization or energy or timing of one of the particles is measured, its indefinite state is destroyed and it falls into a definite state. The astonishing consequence of this is that the particle's distant twin experiences exactly the same metamorphosis at the same moment, even though there is no physical link or signal between the two twins.
In Dr. Gisin's experiment, as in earlier ones, no signal of any kind was transmitted between the photons, but despite this, one of the photons ''knew'' what happened to its distant twin, and mimicked the twin's response. This response took less than one ten-thousandth of the time a light beam would have needed to carry the news from one photon to the other at a speed of 186,282 miles per second. (In fact, the correlation between the two particles was presumably instantaneous. The Swiss experiment merely set an upper limit on the time required for the response as about three ten-billionths of a second.).  Dr. Gisin's experiment made use of a system of paired interferometers developed by Dr. James D. Franson of Johns Hopkins University, who is also a leading investigator of quantum effects.
''You start with an ultraviolet photon and split it into two photons. One goes one way and the other goes another way, both to identical interferometers. Entering its own interferometer, each photon must make a random decision as to whether it will travel a long pathway through the device or a short one. Then you look for a correlation between the pathways taken by the photons in their respective interferometers.'' If the timing between the photons is exactly adjusted, each twin seems to know what the other is doing and matches its choice of pathway to coincide with that of its distant partner. Dr. Franson said of the correlation demonstrated over a seven-mile course by the Swiss experiment, ''It's pretty amazing.''

Faster than Speed of Light:

It is assumed that the numerical correlation between two particles different from information. Quantum theory is confirmed by experiments, and so is relativity theory, which prevents us from sending messages faster than light. It is unknown that there's any intuitive explanation of what that means.

Tunneling:

Another deep quantum mystery for which physicists have no answer has to do with ''tunneling'' -- the bizarre ability of particles to sometimes penetrate impenetrable barriers. This effect is not only well demonstrated; it is the basis of tunnel diodes and similar devices vital to modern electronic systems. Tunnelling is based on the fact that quantum theory is statistical in nature and deals with probabilities rather than specific predictions; there is no way to know in advance when a single radioactive atom will decay, for example. The probabilistic nature of quantum events means that if a stream of particles encounters an obstacle, most of the particles will be stopped in their tracks but a few, conveyed by probability alone, will magically appear on the other side of the barrier. The process is called ''tunnelling,'' although the word in itself explains nothing. Dr. Chiao's group at Berkeley, Dr. Aephraim M. Steinberg at the University of Toronto and others are investigating the strange properties of tunnelling, which was one of the subjects explored by scientists attending the Nobel Symposium on quantum physics in Sweden. ''We find,'' Dr. Chiao said, ''that a barrier placed in the path of a tunnelling particle does not slow it down. In fact, we detect particles on the other side of the barrier that have made the trip in less time than it would take the particle to traverse an equal distance without a barrier -- in other words, the tunnelling speed apparently greatly exceeds the speed of light. Moreover, if you increase the thickness of the barrier the tunneling speed increases, as high as you please. ''This is another great mystery of quantum mechanics.'' Most physicists and engineers set aside the contemplation of quantum mysteries and are content to exploit the innumerable applications quantum physics has found in technology, including lasers, solid-state electronics and much more. But the sense of mystery has never been entirely suppressed.

The Cosmic Code:
The late Rockefeller University physicist Heinz Pagels, like many other theorists, believed that quantum physics is a kind of code that interconnects everything in the universe, including the physical basis of life itself. In his book ''The Cosmic Code,'' Dr. Pagels, an ardent mountain climber, wrote:
''I often dream about falling. Such dreams are commonplace to the ambitious or those who climb mountains. Lately I dreamed I was clutching at the face of a rock, but it would not hold. Gravel gave way. I grasped for a shrub, but it pulled loose, and in cold terror I fell into the abyss. Suddenly I realized that my fall was relative; there was no bottom and no end. A feeling of pleasure overcame me. I realized that what I embody, the principle of life, cannot be destroyed. It is written into the cosmic code, the order of the universe. As I continued to fall in the dark void, embraced by the vault of the heavens, I sang to the beauty of the stars and made my peace with the darkness.'' Dr. Pagels was killed in a climbing accident in 1988.
Quantum Entanglement or the God Effect!
One of the main scientific goals of the world's largest atom smasher, costing some 9 billion dollars, is to prove the existence of the Higgs boson or God particle, which makes the universe possible by giving mass to everything including all of us and the objects we can touch! Quantum Entanglement (QE) or the God Effect is the working mechanism of the Higgs boson or the God particle, because it’s so fundamental.  Quantum Entanglement is at the heart of understanding how significant events across the universe operate at the macro- and micro- level in split-second synchronicity despite considerable distance between them. Quantum Entanglement suggests that information is exchanged faster between Quantum Entangled particles than the speed of light, which was deemed impossible per Einstein's special theory of relativity proposed in 1905.

Quantum Entanglement: Applications

A 'Type' of "The God Connection"!
When God created the universe and the laws of physics, did He leave a 'connection' with all particles and forces within it?  It seems there are themes and 'designs' in science that seem to repeat and recur in nature. Scientists and theologians have long wondered about the 'dualism' in particles and forces in the universe, nature, and morality. For example, matter and antimatter, positive and negative charges, male, female, good and evil, etc. When atomic theory became the dominate theory of matter around the turn of the last century, the model of Neils Bohr, of hard round particles orbiting the atomic nucleus, was compared to the planetary system of our sun. The same theme is recurrent in galactic structure and the orbits of stars, star clusters, and gasses. It seemed that a basic structure was promulgated from the very smallest objects to the very largest.
We have since seen that the atom is much more complicated and that the objects orbiting the nucleus are not 'hard' and definite, but are both particle and wave in their structure. The nucleus itself is very complex and the once hard objects that we call neutrons, and protons are actually made up of 'quarks' and other nebulous subatomic particles.
 In religion we have a belief that in order to communicate with God, a person enters into a state of consciousness that we call prayer. Through prayer, a spiritual connection is made to God and He hears our thoughts and we receive assurance that He acknowledges our wishes. Is there a similar "type" in the physical world for that connection? “It was We who created man and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein.”(Qur’an;50:16)
 The idea in quantum entanglement is that every particle in a particle-antiparticle pair is in instant communication with the other particle, regardless of how far apart they are. It is a phenomenon that was experimentally proven, just recently, by scientists in Geneva Switzerland, in 2008. In this experiment a single particle - antiparticle pair was sent streaming away from the source in opposite directions, and they were detected when they were about 20 miles away from each other. The 'entanglement'  phenomenon was proven when a 'detection' of one particle instantly produced an identical change in the other particle. This 'instantaneous' transmission of information defies Einstein's theory of relativity and the speed of light. A calculation was made that determined that the speed of this experiment was at least 10,000 times the speed of light and perhaps was instantaneous.
The size of the particles of this discussion are at the subatomic level, far below 'microscope' level. Some scientists think that at this level, there is a universal 'connection' that transcends space/time and allows  all particles to be 'in contact' with every other particle in the universe in a way that we have yet to understand. Below the 'quantum' or Planck level, the definitions of space and time become obscure and tend to blur.  If all particles are somehow connected below the Planck level, it would seem to say that we all have a universal connection to each other and perhaps that is the medium through which prayer is channelled? That much is pure speculation, but if God created all the physical laws and the universe in such a way that He is never out of touch both  spiritually and physically, and is omnipresent everywhere at once, it confirms what Christians, Jews & Muslims have always said about His presence and the ease with which we are in touch with Him. It means that He knows every thought, every event, and everything that happens in the universe. It also says that no matter how far you travel, or how much you transgress His will, He is always near.
Application in Highly Secure Communications:
There are some real and amazing applications of Quantum Entanglement in our world. It can be used to produce unbreakable encryption. If we send each half of a set of entangled pairs to either end of a communications link, then the randomly generated but linked properties can be used as a key to encrypt information. If anyone intercepts the information it will break the entanglement, and the communication can be stopped before the eavesdropper picks up any data.  Teleportation, Star Trek style is an other aspect being explored.
Quantum Pseudo-Telepathy: Telepathy is the transmission of information from one person to another without using any of our known sensory channels or physical interaction, it is experienced between individuals, love one’s at far off distances. The phenomenon of quantum pseudo-telepathy is mostly used as a powerful and explicit thought experiment of the non-local characteristics of quantum mechanics. Yet, the effect is real and subject to experimental verification, as demonstrated by the experimental confirmation of the violation of the Bell inequalities. The 2nd Caliph Omar is reported to have communicated with the commander of Islamic Army in battlefield hundreds of miles away. May be entanglement phenomena have some thing to explain.

Next: >>>> Chapter- 4: The Holographic Universe